Ketika Meluruskan “Hoax Keagamaan” Dianggap Sebagai Penistaan 52


Geliat yang muncul dari berbagai pihak untuk memerangi berita hoax tampaknya membuat para pembuat dan mereka yang diuntungkan dengan penyebaran berita hoax cukup gelisah. Pemerintah secara tegas melalui Presiden Joko Widodo menyatakan perang terhadap penyebaran berita hoax[1]. Masyarakat swasta melalui berbagai forum/komunitas melakukan kampanye anti hoax[2].

Menurut Wikipedia, disebutkan bahwa “A hoax is a deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade as the truth”. Hoax adalah informasi dusta/kebohongan yang telah siap ditayangkan ditutupi oleh topeng seakan itu mengandung kebenaran. Unsurnya dapat terdiri atas “deliberately” (dengan maksud/sengaja), “fabricated” (yang telah siap dicetak), “falsehood” (dusta atau kebohongan), “made to masquarade” (yang memakai topeng), as the truth (sebagai kebenaran). [3]

Salah satu hoax yang cukup tren adalah hoax keagamaan. Jenis ini cukup banyak tersebar, setidaknya dikarenakan Hoax keagamaan melibatkan emosi pembacanya secara mendalam. Naluri beragama yang dimiliki oleh pembaca seakan diusik, menjadikan pembacanya seakan dicuci otak untuk melakukan sesuatu yang diinginkan oleh sang pembuat berita hoax tersebut.

Selain itu, hoax keagamaan sangat mudah menyebar dikarenakan Indonesia adalah negara yang 95% masyarakatnya menganggap agama menjadi suatu hal yang penting. 95 persen warga Indonesia menganggap agama sebagai hal yang sangat penting dalam hidup. Hal itu terungkap dalam riset Pew Research Center (23 Desember 2015). Hasil riset itu menempatkan Indonesia pada posisi ketiga, di bawah dua negara Afrika: Ethiopia (98 persen), dan Senegal (97 persen). Indonesia juga meninggalkan negara-negara di kawasan Asia dalam perkara religius ini. Misalnya: Pakistan (93 persen), Filipina (87 persen), dan Malaysia (84 persen)[4]. Dampaknya, setiap berita yang berhubungan dengan agama akan dianggap sebagai berita serius, dan ditindaklanjuti secara serius pula tanpa melakukan klarifikasi atas kebenaran berita tersebut.

Salah satu contoh hoax keagamaan yang beredar semenjak puluhan tahun silam dan hingga saat ini masih sering ditemui adalah postingan tentang seseorang yang bermimpi bertemu dengan Juru Kunci Makam Rasulullah. Dalam mimpinya, ia diberi pesan untuk berzikir dengan bacaan tertentu, dan seterusnya. Jelas ini adalah berita hoax dengan nuansa religi, atau dapat disebut hoax keagamaan. Sudah menjadi tugas kita untuk meluruskan.

Sayangnya, lagi-lagi sebagaimana saya kemukakan dalam paragraf awal, bahwa para penikmat berita hoax tidak akan terima jika berita hoax yang telah disebar tersebut diklarifikasi, maupun sekedar diluruskan. Mereka akan membuat langkah pencegahan agar berita hoax yang mereka sebarkan tetap berjalan mulus tanpa hambatan. Setidaknya, ada beberapa cara yang terungkap. Pertama, mereka akan membenturkan antara Berita Hoax dan Kebebasan berpendapat. Mereka merasa menyebarkan hoax itu sah-sah saja sebagai bentuk kebebasan pendapat. Tentu ini adalah logika yang salah (logical fallacy). Bukankah “kebebasan pendapat”-pun tetap ada hal yang membatasinya?. Sebagai contoh menanggapi hoax keagamaan mimpi bertemu juru kunci tersebut di atas, para penikmat hoax akan menanggapi dengan ungkapan “Orang mau nyebar ajakan zikir kok gak boleh”, misalnya. Tentu ada kesalahan berlogika dalam hal ini.

Langkah kedua yang mereka lakukan adalah melakukan hegemoni seolah-olah segala bentuk meluruskan berita hoax merupakan penistaan dan memiliki nuansa kebencian terhadap pribadi penyebarnya. Logika ini layaknya isi fikiran anak kecil, yang menganggap teguran dari orang atau guru mengandung unsur benci. Padahal sebenarnya sama sekali tidak mengandung unsur kebencian, sebaliknya menegur dan meluruskan sesuatu yang salah dapat dikatakan sebagai tanda sayang, bukan? Misal dalam kasus hoax mimpi juru kunci tersebut di atas. Penikmat hoax akan berkata “Halah, bilang saja kamu malas nyebar ajakan bagus semacam ini kan? Atau kamu ini orang yang jarang ber-zikir ya?” atau ungkapan lain yang senada.

Yang terbaru, ketika beredar di jejaring media sosial terkait wafatnya salah seorang ustadz dari salah satu ponpes di Garut, muncul berita hoax bahwa ustadz tersebut wafat akibat pengeroyokan yang dilakukan GMBI di bandung saat mengawal pemanggilan Rizieq Shihab di Polda Bandung. Ketika saya meluruskan berita tersebut dengan mencantumkan klarifikasi dari rekan sesama Ustadz yang wafat tersebut, saya terkejut dengan jawaban salah satu anggota jejaring medsos tersebut. Alih-alih menyadari kekeliruannya, ia justru bertanya “Kok bilang gitu? Masnya pendukung GMBI ya? Masnya ingin FPI dibubarkan juga ya?” tanyanya. Lhah, kok jawabnya begini? Ketemu pirang perkoro?

 

[1] http://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20170115122752-20-186403/jokowi-materi-hoax-di-medsos-ancam-persatuan-indonesia/

[2] http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2017/01/10/20445611/menkominfo.ajak.publik.perangi.hoax.melalui.komunitas

[3] http://www.kompasiana.com/chandrayusufsh/hoax-kebebasan-berpendapat-yang-berlebihan_58800a482623bd010eaa00b7

[4] https://beritagar.id/artikel/berita/95-persen-warga-indonesia-anggap-agama-penting-dalam-kehidupan

 


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52 thoughts on “Ketika Meluruskan “Hoax Keagamaan” Dianggap Sebagai Penistaan

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